Newark Memorial High School Physics & Robotics Teacher
- Short description of sound spectrum analysis.
- Looking at throat singing.
- How to throat sing — starting with vowels.
- Spectrograms of other instruments.
How to do spectrum analysis?
–if you have probeware, get microphones for it
–for Windows machines, Spectrogram works well:
Demo Version; Free; limits time of usage
Paid version: $25
–Macintosh: Audacity 1.0 (free) and Mac the Scope (free to try; $74 to buy) are both on www.zdnet.com
Media on throat singing:
Scientific American article: http://www.sciam.com search for “Tuva”; 09/20/1999
article is available free&endash;if you are asked to subscribe or pay to get it, keep poking around. This is a great intro into Tuva, throat singing, and some of the physics behind it. Great audio and video clips!
Tuva or Bust! Richard Feyman’s Last Journey (book)— Ralph Leighton, W. W. Norton & Company 1991
Chronicles Ralph and Richard’s many-year struggle to get to Tuva.
Genghis Blues (movie) http://www.genghisblues.com/ Tells the story of San Francisco blues musician and throat singer Paul Pena’s incredible journey to a throat singing contest in Tuva.
Michael Emory’s throat singing how-to (included with presentation):
- www.fotuva.org (website) for Friends of Tuva
- www.ondar.com (website) for Kongar-ol Ondar the “Elvis of Tuva”
by Michael Emory
During the past year I have learned techniques of some throat-singing styles as practiced in Central Asia. With guidance from Maj. P.C. (Ret.), and access to his collection of vocal recordings from that part of the world, I have experienced fair success in executing the forms described below. The following is intended to offer instruction to anyone with interest and patience enough to learn a way to refine self-generated sound. Previous voice training is not required. I would be delighted to hear of someone able to throat-sing while having listened to no recordings.
Much of learning to throat-sing is dependent upon the recognition of an existing subtlety of one tone among many. When you hear this and find where it is and is not, you may listen as it gains clarity and power. In this manner I was able to produce two harmonics with melody soon after hearing the khoomei-borbangy of Mr. Kaigal-ool Khovalyg. I already had been ending medleys of style with the required position simply because it felt correct.
Variation in the character of throat singing styles is dictated by careful positioning and movement of the tongue, lips, and jaw. These control pitch, timbre, and (in one case) suppression of harmonic overtones. Also necessary is a tightening of throat muscles to restrict the fundamental (lower, normal) tone. This allows generated overtones to dominate that which is heard. A faint harmonic melody can be produced above a relaxed and normally sung tone. With recognition of this possibility comes a realization that many singing styles consciously utilize harmonics for dramatic effect.
The style of kargyraa differs in that another vibration is required of the throat.
Khoomei, basic – begin by producing a long, steady note with an open, relaxed mouth and throat. by altering lip and tongue positions to say vowels, “oooo… ohhh…. ayyy…. ahhh….. eeee….”, you will hear different overtones in ascending pitch. Cupping a hand to your ear may help you to identify these initially. Maintain one tone as you tighten your throat and stomach muscles slightly. If you choke, try a lower fundamental. If you begin coughing, go into this tightening over a period of time to avoid damage to your voice. Hard coughing is punishing to vocal cords.
You should now be making “electronic” sounding vowels. If any of these are extended with subtle changes to the tongue, lips, or jaw (changing one element at a time as in any controlled experiment), separate overtones will gain definition. The sounds you create are feedback leading to finer mouth control.
It may be difficult to sort out the overtones created by each position. Discover them as you work out a scale above one steady fundamental. Eventually simple melodies will emerge within a limited range. As you consciously create melody, avoid the temptation to alter the fundamental. This is basic khoomei.
Sygyt – with your throat tightened, sing an “e” vowel at a comfortable pitch. Shift the jaw slightly forward and partially close the mouth with lips protruded. You should hear a drop in the pitch of the harmonic. As the sides of the tongue are held against upper premolars push sound between tongue and palate. By adjusting your lips different notes will emerge. Flexing the middle of the tongue up and down lends a wider range, greater definition and more drive to produced tones. Keep the tongue sides in contact with teeth to maintain a separate upper cavity in which overtones are generated. This is the position for sygyt used by Tuvan singers.
A similar style places the tongue higher on the palate or with the tongue-tip folded back. I believe that Mongolian singers favor this position.
Khoomei-borbangy – if you are able to produce a very relaxed and clear khoomei melody by varying tongue position but without jaw or lip shifts, you may begin hearing a second overtone. This is audible at a pitch between the fundamental and the melodic overtone. A third, higher, ringing overtone may also emerge (most people find it a painful curiosity only, some people think that of all throat-singing). Tongue movement to create melody must remain low in the mouth to avoid interference with the lower, more subtle harmonic. It is simplest to keep the tip rested at the base of the lower incisors while gently flexing the middle of the tongue. With practice comes greater freedom of movement. The jaw should be held forward and fairly rigid as the lips are held loosely at an “ohh” position. On the verge of relaxation your lips should quiver lightly and rapidly. A slight opening or closing movement of the jaw may help initiate this movement. This fine balance is an elusive state and should be allowed to happen passively on your part. If it once happens, simply try to recreate the conditions which led to its occurrence. Warm up by singing in the other styles, your lips may respond more readily.
Fine control will take time to develop. The result is a pulsating overtone adding richness to a remote sounding, fluting melody.
Kargyraa – this style relies upon vibrations other than those normally produced by the vocal cords. A low fundamental is used to create a powerful percussive sounds. Harmonics are created in an open mouth as in basic khoomei. Use jaw and lip changes freely. It is easy to combine this with sygyt to create chylandyk.
While able to perform kargyraa, I cannot explain the mechanism used in its production. A tightening of part of the throat is involved as is a push from the diaphragm. [Forcing more air through a restricted passageway would accelerate it and may act to overload the vocal cords, changing their vibration frequency?] As my singing practice continues I realize that an ability to relax the lower portions of the throat allows surfaces deeper in the chest to resonate and enhance tonal quality. Sygyt singing is a very good warm up for kargyraa.
Kargyraa may be learned by “huffing” air forcefully at the lowest pitch you can create, or at some level below that recognizable note. In time you should feel a regular percussive movement. When you find that you can engage that “motor”, rise the pitch until clear overtones emerge. The amount of expelled air needed to sing passages of length may seem daunting at first. With practice you will expend less breath in generating desired sounds and can sing for longer periods. Achieving the correct throat movement is the more difficult aspect of kargyraa. As I shift from a normally sung vowel into this movement, I tighten my throat and stomach slightly, As I go from khoomei to kargyraa, I open the upper throat.
Dairy products should be avoided before singing as they create mucous in the throat. Milk chocolate seems to be especially effective at this.
As mentioned above, the new sensations your throat will experience was you initially try throat-singing will likely bring on coughing; it tickles. Until your throat becomes accustomed to this you should not push too rapidly. Do only a little each day. Throat-singing is good for your voice, sustained coughing is not.